- قاموس المصطلحات
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Measurement in degrees of the movement of a balance-and-spring assembly: amplitude is the angle between the position of equilibrium and its maximum elongation.
Refers to time display using hands.
Dial opening revealing the indications provided on disks rotating under the dial.
Raised numeral or hour-marker, applied to or riveted to the dial. At Patek Philippe, appliques are always in gold and are sometimes diamond-set.
An activity carried out by the Grand Complications workshop. The watchmakers themselves perform certain finishing operations such as polishing steel parts or chamfering bridges.
A collection inspired by the Nautilus, created in 1996. It is distinguished by the complexity of its case shape, equipped with a screw-down crown, framing a superbly finished black textured dial. Aquanaut watches are available in two sizes (medium and large) and in two versions (gold and steel), on a « Tropical » composite strap or metal bracelet.
Usual way of showing the numerals. Arabic numerals: 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.9.0. As opposed to Roman numerals: I, II,III...
Elongated part linking certain parts of a mechanism within a movement (such as the arm of a wheel, for example).
An artistic movement stemming from the Decorative Arts Exhibition in Paris in 1925, which asserts a taste for straight lines and the geometrical interpretation of nature's forms.
See « Lugs ».
The lower part of the case, fixed beneath the case middle. The case, either in metal or in sapphire crystal to reveal the movement, may be of the screw-down, snap-on, screw-on or hinged dust cover type.
A gemstone cut.
Balance and spring assembly
The regulating organ of a mechanical movement. The balance-and-spring assembly, composed of a balance and a balance-spring, oscillates under the impetus of the escapement. In Patek Philippe watches, balance-and-spring assemblies are generally of the Gyromax type.
Disc-shaped escapement component. The balance roller receives the impulses from the pallets via its impulse-pin.
Synonymous with a balance-bridge. The balance-cock has a special shape, from which it gets its name, which reveals the balance.
Small spring coiled into a spiral, an integral part of the balance-and-spring assembly.
Mechanical device enabling two parts to roll over each other instead of sliding.
The stem around which the mainspring coils.
The lateral wall of the barrel, fitted with a hook to receive the mainspring.
The part of a mechanical movement that enables the accumulation of energy. The barrel is composed of a wheel and drum (cylindrical case) with a cover. It houses the mainspring which coils around the barrel arbor under the impetus of the ratchet wheel.
Central plate of the movement, made in brass or nickel silver, on which the movement components are assembled. The upper side of the base plate is the side facing the case back which receives the movement parts. The under side of the base plate is the side facing the dial.
Refers to hour-markers or hands featuring the elongated shape of a baton.
A German school of architecture and applied arts, renowned for having initiated the artistic movement which holds that function determines form. The Bauhaus was founded in 1919 by Walter Gropius in Weimar.
A hydrocarbon with solvent properties.
Upper part of the case which holds the glass. It is fixed above the case middle.
A French word with Swiss roots (basically meaning "to make well") which refers to the good quality of a piece of work or an object.
Binocular magnifying glass
Optical enlargement instrument with twin eyepieces enabling one to look with both eyes at once.
المجسم الأول للوحة الميناء قبل أن يتم العمل عليه.
A protective varnish used to coat all parts of the case and metal bracelet after polishing.
A kind of support or rest.
Alloy of copper and zinc.
Movement part fixed to the base plate, in which the pivot of mobile parts turn. Generally speaking, bridges are named after the mobile parts they carry. Among the easiest to recognize is the balance-bridge also named as balance-cock.
Brilliant or full-cut diamond. Brilliant is the most widely used cut for diamonds. It comprises 57 facets, meaning 1 table surrounded with 32 facets for the crown and 24 for the culet.
Style of chain bracelet, made from gold threads.
Abbreviation for « calendar » = simple date = simple calendar in the Patek Philippe typology.
Refers to a hand shaped like a cable.
An emblematic and quintessentially classic Patek Philippe collection since 1932. The lines of this timeless watch with a round case for men and ladies, are directly inspired by the Bauhaus artistic movement. Featuring a bezel that may be flat, round, gem-set or adorned with a hobnail pattern, the watch itself may be ultra-thin or fitted with a cover protecting the sapphire case back.
A complication that provides the various indications of the conventional calendar such as the date, the week, the month and the year. Patek Philippe watches include:
Originally synonymous with size or dimension. Watchmakers then began to use the term to refer to the movement. Patek Philippe has 15 base calibres. They are used either as they are or to serve as a « base » for additional developments or functions. There are thus 38 different calibers for wristwatches and 6 for pocket watches in regular production within the Manufacture.
A disk with a special profile on which a sprung lever rests.
In a movement, the pinion that controls the motion-work (the gear train that drives the hour, minute and seconds hands).
The middle part of the case, placed between the bezel and the back. It houses the movement.
The watch case is generally composed of three parts: the case middle, the bezel and the case back.
Ring surrounding the movement and holding it inside the case.
See « Gong ».
Complication that provides a representation of the sky, as it may be observed at night. Also known as sky chart, it enables one to follow the positions of the stars and that of the moon and to visualise the various phases.
Abbreviation for « Chronograph » in the Patek Philippe typology.
A bracelet for which the links are produced one by one from a gold wire.
Also known as beveling or in French, anglage. Here, the sharp edge between the surface and the flank of a component is manually cut or filed away to a smooth 45° curve, followed by polishing with a mechanical buffer. A chamfer is typically used to increase resistance to wear, or for aesthetic reasons.
Hand engraving technique. Champlevé consists of hollowing out a metal plate with a flat graver, thus forming small cavities to receive the enamel.
Chenier (or knuckle)
Small tube into which one inserts a pin to form a hinge.
Abbreviation of « Split-seconds chronograph » in the Patek Philippe typology.
Watch complication enabling measurement of the duration of an event. A classic chronograph comprises a chronograph or seconds hand circling the dial and another hand adding up the minutes on a counter or totalizer. Some have additional counters. Be careful not to confuse a chronograph with a chronometer!
A watch featuring high precision certified by an official body. In Switzerland, rating certificates are granted, on a one-by-one basis, by the COSC (Swiss Official Chronometer Testing Institute). Be careful not to confuse a chronometer with a chronograph!
In French, called perlage due to the finished resemblance to a row of tiny pearls. Here, the main plate and attached bridges are etched with a pattern of interlaced circles or bead shapes. To create the pattern, the flat end of a piece of pegwood coated with emery paste is fitted into a rotating head and pressed meticulously down on the plate to make perfectly linear rows.
Circular satin brushing
A polishing technique used for a case, and resulting in a velvety, tunnel-like image.
Circular satin finish
To form fine circular lines on the surface of a metal movement component, using a hand lathe or fine emery paper.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora. This agreement between nations is intended to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild plants and animals does not threaten the survival of the species to which they belong. Patek Philippe watch straps are made from the leather of farmed animals subject to the CITES.
Abbreviation for « Celestial canopy » (or sky chart) in the Patek Philippe typology.
See « Enamel ».
Acronym for Computerised Numerical Control.
Central element of the split-seconds chronograph mechanism which gives the various parts (operating-lever hook, hammer, coupling lever and brake) their appropriate positions.
Refers to a flaw on exterior parts: material slightly hollowed around a tiny burr.
Relating to a sequence, a well ordered succession (as opposed to simultaneous).
Button integrated within the case middle, which is pressed using the setting stylus to adjust certain specific functions.
Swiss Official Chronometer Testing Institute
In a classic chronograph, a subdial indicating the time elapsed in minutes. There are also counters for hours or fractions of a second.
A button (which is often fluted), operated between the thumb and forefinger that is pulled into various positions and turned, generally to set the time or adjust the date. On mechanical watches, the crown (or winding crown) also serves to wind the movement. See « Winding crown ».
Gemstone cut: an essential element in highlighting the stones. The proportions chosen determine three physical phenomena: internal reflection, diffraction or dispersion, and scintillation or fire. Professionals have established a scale for evaluating the quality of cuts. Patek Philippe uses only the best, referred to as "very good" and "excellent".
Cutting the teeth
This operation is performed by means of a milling-cutter. This tool performs two movements: a rotating movement linked to that of the wheel and pinion to be cut, and a lengthwise movement (in the direction of the axis of the mobile part).
Date of Easter
Complication that displays the date of Easter according to this rule: the first Sunday after the full moon which follows the spring equinox. The patented mechanism is housed within the Calibre 89 watch.
Refers to hands with an elongated triangular shape.
Also known as tampography, transfer printing or pad printing. A printing process that transfers a two-dimensional image onto any two- or three-dimensional (or otherwise difficult) object. In watchmaking, an inked silicone pad is positioned meticulously over the raw blank of a dial; the pad is lowered to imprint the words and numerals onto the dial surface, which is then allowed to dry before any further layer of transfer is added.
Plate with a metal base, visible through a glass, which carries certain indications such as the hours, minutes and seconds. On Patek Philippe watches, dials are generally in brass. The exceptions are those that are gold colored, sun burst blue, models paved with precious stones, or for some Grand Complications which are made from solid gold plates. Particular care is devoted to their finish. They may be embossed, guilloché, galvanized, painted, metallic, gem-set or genuine enamel.
Precious stone: pure crystallized carbon, generally colorless, occasionally pink, yellow or blue in colour. A diamond, which is exceptionally hard, scratches all other bodies, but can only be scratched by itself. Patek Philippe uses the highest quality of diamonds, determined by the combination of what are known as the « 4 Cs »: Color, Clarity (purity), Cut (shape) and Carat (weight). On the color grading scale established by diamond professionals, Top Wesselton internally flawless diamonds corresponds to diamonds rated F (rare white +) or G (rare white), loupe-clean when enlarged 10 times.
Steel plate representing the hollowed reproduction of a part to be cut out or stamped. The material placed on the die takes its shape by being struck with a punch.
In watchmaking, refers to display by means of numbers with no hands.
Flat, thin disk carrying the indications which are successively displayed through an aperture as the disk rotates under the dial.
In either a mechanical watch or a quartz watch, the display is shown by hands or through apertures, driven by a gear train.
A mathematical ratio of homogenous size symbolizing the perfect equilibrium of shapes (1/1.6180). Also known as "the golden section", it forms the basis of the design of the Golden Ellipse.
Drilling for stone setting
Preparation for gem-setting by forming the holes that will accommodate the stones. This operation is a machining operation.
Penetrating, passing through. For exemple, the drilling of pivot-holes.
Dual time zone
See « Time zones ».
Abbreviation of « Electronic » in the Patek Philippe typology.
See "Date of Easter"
Chemical decomposition achieved by the action of an electric current. Certain metals are electrolyzed in order to apply them on others in fine layers.
Stamping a motif in metal with imprints embossed using a press.
Green colored gemstone, a variety of beryl. Most widely used gemstone cut for emeralds.
A finishing technique used on metal cases and bracelets to achieve a smooth and shiny surface and remove any flaws. The process involves gently rubbing the piece against an abrasive strip in a figure-of-eight pattern to give a soft luster. This is also called lapping when an oil- or water-based slurry of sanding abrasive is used.
Abrasive mixture coated on paper. Emery paper is used in particular for polishing, smoothing down and creating a circular satin finish.
Translucent substance that takes on various colors by adding metallic oxides. When fired in the furnace, it adheres to metal and acquires the consistency of glass. It may be applied in a single colour on certain dials. Figurative painting is also used to create decorative motifs. On Patek Philippe watches, these decorative motifs are generally created using two techniques:
A technique where colored glass or enamel pigments are ground to a fine powder, mixed with water or oil and painted meticulously onto a prepared metal surface. Once dry, the piece is fired in a kiln at temperatures of around 850°C, so that the powdered glass or pigment melts to form a new, impregnable surface and fuses to the metal base.
Energy transmission and division of time
Stage no. 3 in the working of any watch: in both mechanical and quartz watches, the energy is transmitted by a gear train which simultaneously divides up time. In the former case, it is powered by the mainspring; and in the latter, by a stepping motor.
A deeply creative skill where aesthetically pleasing shapes and flourishes are etched on cases and dials. The artist first creates the design with a pencil sketch, then transfers it to the metal surface with a burin for fine lines, or a graver for broader furrows, focusing on the tiny canvas through a binocular microscope.
Abbreviation of "Equation of time" in the Patek Philippe typology.
Equation of time
Complication which indicates the difference between conventional time (mean time) and the time determined by the position of the sun (real time). This difference ranges between –16 and + 14 minutes, depending on the day of the year.
The date when the duration of the day is equal to that of the night. There are two equinoxes per year which correspond to the start of spring and that of autumn.
The organ of a mechanical movement that enables distribution of energy step by step (and not all at once). The escapement, composed of a wheel with a special shape (curved teeth) and pallets, maintains the oscillations of the regulating organ, the balance-and-spring assembly.
Banking of a lever escapement when it is cut out of the plate and is not in the form of pins (solid banking). This term is specific to Geneva watchmaking.
Set of external parts of a watch: case, dial, hands, glass, crown, strap/bracelet, etc. (to the exclusion of movement components).
Having facets, such as on gemstones.
Angling the planes of some raised three-dimensional numerals, which will sit on a dial. A machine fitted with sharp diamond tools is used to incise the batons or hour markers to make visibility even more acute.
Part of the case hand-finishing. This stage includes trimming or filing off of residue material, and it’s here that attachments are soldered, hinges are made for cases with dust covers and their openings adjusted, and preparations are made for polishing.
At Patek Philippe, this term encompasses a set of finishing operations performed by hand on watch parts, in keeping with the Geneva tradition. Most of the finishing operations which contribute high value added are part of the Patek Philippe Seal criteria.
Refers to the work of a company that buys watch components from outside and only handles assembly, adjustment, fitting the hands and casing up. One must distinguish between a finishing workshop as opposed to a Manufacture.
Fitters assemble the movement components and the parts that make up the case and bracelet, combining the cases, bezels, backs, sapphire crystals, joints, and winding crowns. Operations are carried out in conditions of absolute cleanliness. At this stage, grueling tests are carried out on each watch, for everything from water resistance to design finesse.
A clasp that opens by folding over, without being detached from the two parts of the bracelet.
Tip of the pallets which alternately pushes the impulse-pin placed under the balance and spring assembly so as to maintain its oscillations.
Number of oscillations per second. Frequency is expressed in Hertz (Hz). 1 hertz = 1 oscillation = 2 vibrations per second.
Abbreviation for « time zone » in the Patek Philippe typology.
Also known as electroplating, this is the process of applying a protective coating over a metal to prevent rusting, which helps keep the material free from impediment (damp or sea air can all create corrosion over time) and in perfect working order for much longer. During galvanization, one metal is electrochemically covered with another – for example, bridges and plates are protected by a fine layer of rhodium. Electroplating can also be used to change a dial’s color.
Technique for plating metal by electrolysis. For example, the bridges and plates are protected from oxidation by a fine layer of rhodium.
Gear train composed of wheels and toothed pinions.
Set of wheels driven in an interdependent movement. The gear-train generally called the going train is the one that transmits energy and divides up time. It comprises the hour wheel, the minute wheel and the seconds wheel. Variable sets of wheels result in reduction and in different speeds of rotation:
Specialist of fine stones and precious stones, scientifically called "gems".
Craftsman who sets fine stones or precious stones.
Precious stones – diamonds, rubies, sapphires or emeralds – are set manually at Patek Philippe, in the traditional way. They are never adhesively bonded, but positioned ultra-securely by folding over the metal collars that surround them. Stones must be fastidiously placed (level, pointing in the same direction and all at the same height) to bring out their full shimmer and radiance.
Geneva stripes / "Côtes de Genève"
Famous wavelike decorative pattern created on the bridges and oscillating weights of Patek Philippe watches. The tool required is crafted from boxwood by the craftsman himself, coated in abrasive paste and then pressed manually in order to remove an extremely small amount of material.
Also known as Côtes de Genève. Decorative broad, straight stripes ground onto parts of watch movements such as plates, bridges or rotors. At Patek Philippe, the artisan coats a wooden machine-held tool with abrasive paste and repeatedly presses this down on the component as it is pushed, on its workplate, away. This removes a tiny quantity of material from the surface and creates a very slightly three-dimensional wave pattern.
Thin transparent plate through which one reads off the time, and which protects the dial. A glass may also be fitted on the case back to reveal the movement. The glasses used for Patek Philippe watches are always in scratch-resistant sapphire and may thus also be referred to as sapphire crystals.
Collection characterized by an elliptical case, inspired by the golden section. This "divine proportion" is not a measurement, but a mathematical ratio of homogenous size corresponding to 1/1.6180 and symbolizing the perfect equilibrium of shapes. Golden Ellipse watches were created in 1968 for men, and ladies' versions were subsequently introduced.
Coating with a thin film of gold.
Striking mechanism part:
See "Striking mechanism".
A pointed tool for engraving.
A disc used for polishing, coated with an abrasive substance.
Also called engine turning. A type of engraving used for cases, bracelets, dials, bezels, and sometimes movement components, and carried out using lathes, many of which, at Patek Philippe, are antique, hand-operated machines. The technique results in a geometrically intricate, delicate repeating pattern and calls for dexterity and a good eye – the human dimension is what instills beauty here. The engravings are often made on pocket watch dust covers, while the bezels of Calatrava watches feature “Clous de Paris,” a crisp pattern that forms tiny pyramid shapes.
A system of adjusting the balance and spring assembly, patented by Patek Philippe in 1949 and 1951. The Gyromax balance and spring assembly, which equips the company's mechanical movements, replaces the traditional index-assembly or regulator-assembly system. The adjustment depends on the direction of the asymmetrical inertia-blocks placed on the balance-ring, enabling one to modify a watch which is gaining or losing time.
Refers to a hand that looks somewhat like a hair.
A component in striking watches: Hammers are small levers with a weight at one end which strike gongs to produce sounds.
Metal part which points to various indications on the dial. At Patek Philippe, it may take a variety of shapes and forms, including dauphine, Breguet, leaf, baton, hair, pear, cabled or Louis XV.
Refers to the steel parts used in movements: See "Hardening".
Modification of the molecular structure of the steel part in order to make it harder or more flexible. Firing it in the furnace at a temperature of 800°C and then cooling it down quickly in oil at around 40°C make the metal harder, but also more brittle. To stabilize the material, it is reheated to various temperatures and for various lengths of time, depending on the flexibility required for the function the part is to serve.
Steel part enabling the return in one or the other direction of the chronograph hand and/or the split seconds chronograph hand.
Unit of frequency of a movement.
Abbreviation for "hour shown through an aperture" in the Patek Philippe typology.
Motif forming small pyramid shapes which is among the most famous types of guilloché work, engraved ornamentation composed of regularly interwoven hollowed lines.
Symbolic character serving to indicate the subdivisions of time, on the dial. The hour markers, whether pointed baton or rounded baton, may be flat (painted) or raised (appliques). They are to be distinguished from numerals, which are characters representing numbers.
Abbreviation for "Jumping Hour", in the Patek Philippe typology.
Abbreviation for "World Time", in the Patek Philippe typology.
Hunter pocket watch
Pocket watch with a cover, which is distinguished by a winding stem at 3 o'clock and a seconds hand placed along the 12 o'clock – 6 o'clock axis.
Cylindrical, elongated escapement part, generally made from ruby. The impulse pin receives the impulses given by the pallet-fork. It is fixed to the roller, under the balance-spring for which it serves to maintain the oscillations.
Traditional system for adjusting the balance and spring assembly. In Patek Philippe movements, apart from calibre 16-250, it is replaced by an exclusive system named Gyromax.
Small asymmetrical metal part which acts by inertia. The Gyromax balance and spring assembly, patented by Patek Philippe, is poised thanks to adjustable inertia-blocks. This equilibrium governs the regularity of rate of the movement, with a minimum gain or loss.
Regulates the speed of rotation in striking watches.
Component of quartz movements which powers the electrical organs, transmits energy to the stepping motor and divides up the frequency of the quartz.
Abbreviation for power reserve indicator, a complication which displays the time left during which a mechanical movement can continue to run without winding.
Mode of operation of the various Grand Complications workshops at Patek Philippe, which work as self-contained units or production islands. The watchmakers individually finish the movement parts, assemble the calibres, the complications and proceed to "fine working" the watches.
A complication invented by Patek Philippe, the IZR, or state of winding indicator, shows the best moment to wind a self-winding watch. Be careful not to confuse IZR and IRM!
In a movement, a synthetic ruby that serves to reduce friction on the staffs of the pivots. Jewels belong to the "other parts" category.
Steel part that locks certain wheels, known as star wheels, by resting against their teeth. Also known as a jumper spring.
Hour appearing in an aperture thanks to a rotating disk, and which replaces an Hours hand. It is referred to as "jumping" since, every hour on the hour, it changes by jumping abruptly from one numeral to the next.
Machine tool used to fashion parts by causing them to rotate. Lathes may be operated by hand or automatically.
Term used in watchmaking to refer to a hand shaped like a leaf.
In our calendar, a year when the month of February has 29 days instead of 28. Generally speaking, leap years occur every 4 years. Century years, which are multiples of 100, are an exception: only those divisible by 400 are leap years.
A steel or brass part within a mechanical watch shaped like a ship's anchor. It makes up the escapement together with a special-shaped wheel with curved teeth, called the lever wheel.
Pivoting part subject to the action of a spring.
A hand engraving technique. Fine line engraving, made with a burin.
Refers to a hand with Louis XV style motif.
Abbreviation for "moon phases" in the Patek Philippe typology.
Parts extending from the case middle between which a spring bar holds the strap or bracelet.
Which emits light and is therefore visible at night. The luminescent substance, applied by Patek Philippe on the hands, numerals or hour-markers is non radioactive.
Synonymous with cutting out. Working or fashioning raw material. Forming holes and recesses, milling, turning, drilling and threading are all machining operations. At Patek Philippe, the watch parts are machined on computerized numerical control machines.
Motor spring of a mechanical movement. As it coils inside the barrel, it accumulates energy. As it uncoils, it transmits the energy to the hands via a gear-train. In Patek Philippe watches, the mainspring is fitted with a slipping spring when the movement is self-winding.
A manually wound movement is a mechanical movement that is wound by hand (using the winding crown).
Refers to a company that makes a watch in its entirety: conception, development, production, assembly and adjustment. One speaks of a Manufacture as opposed to a finishing workshop.
Elongated gemstone cut, synonymous with navette cut.
Mechanically made bracelet
A bracelet with metal links produced on CNC machinery.
Combination of parts which, together, operate a function. A watch movement comprises several mechanisms.
Refers to a flawed appearance on watch exterior parts: a tiny, almost invisible scratch.
عملية القطع التي تزيل المواد من كل سطح للقطعة، وتنعيم وتنقيح التجاويف الصغيرة وتشكيل ثقوب للأحجار الكريمة وعلامات الساعات. وتجري باستخدام مخرطة طحن عالية السرعة، وهو عمل مرهق ومعقد.
Miniature enamel painting
See "Striking mechanism".
The minute track is the mode of displaying the minutes (railway track).
Also known as poli miroir or poli noir. Regarded as the most demanding of all polishing techniques, true mirror polishing is always done by hand and is found only in the most exceptional timepieces. It’s achieved by rubbing the watch part on a flat zinc plate coated with a paste of very fine diamond dust in oil. The result is a finish that, catching the light from one angle, shines like a silver mirror and, catching it from the other, is a plush matt black.
Describes the particularly soft and luminous result of polishing. Mirror polish is also called black or specular polish.
A complication which depicts the evolution of the moon, as seen from the earth. The indication is generally shown in an aperture, but may sometimes be displayed by a hand.
In a movement, the motion-work is the gear train which drives the hour, minute and seconds hands.
Stage no. 5 in the working of any watch:
There are three types of movements, or calibers, which drive Patek Philippe watches:
A collection, for men and ladies, created in 1976. Nautilus watches are characterized by the shape of their monobloc case: an octagonal ship's porthole secured by four lateral screws to ensure that it is perfectly sealed and water-resistant. Each of its eight sides is subtly curved to trace a perfect arc of a circle, forming the contours of a great classic.
Elongated gemstone cut, synonymous with the marquise cut.
Copper, zinc and nickel alloy, oxidises less easily than brass.
NIHS 92-10 (Norm)
Water resistance norm equivalent to the international ISO-2291 norm. All Patek Philippe watches are tested to around 20% more than the guaranteed value. For example, a watch that is water-resistant to a depth of 25 metres has been tested at a pressure of 3 bars, meaning 30 meters (1 bar = 10 meters).
Character representing a number used to indicate the units of time on the dial. The Arabic, Roman or Breguet style numerals may be flat (painted) or raised (appliques). They are different from symbolic characters such as hour markers.
Fine gemstone, a variety of agate featuring regular concentric zones of various colors. The crowns of Twenty~4® steel watches are set with an onyx.
A solid white finish with a silky rendering. It is achieved by spraying a silvery coating of powder before applying a transparent layer.
In a mechanical watch, the movement of the balance and spring assembly in both directions, to and fro. In a quartz watch, the double vibration of the quartz. One oscillation comprises two vibrations.
Patek Philippe refers to a certain number of movement parts, apart from the plates, bridges, wheel trains and steel parts, as "other parts".
Extremely hard white metal. In Patek Philippe watches, it is used instead of nickel in the composition of white gold.
Antoine Norbert de Patek (1812-1877). A Pole who settled in Geneva in 1835. He took an interest in highly valuable pocket watches and acquired a significant clientele. In 1839, he founded Patek, Czapek & Cie. He subsequently met watchmaker Jean-Adrien Philippe in 1844 and suggested that they become associates. He then changed the name of the Manufacture in 1845 to become Patek & Cie. It only became Patek Philippe & Cie in 1851.
See "Striking mechanism".
Jean-Adrien Philippe (1815-1894). A French watchmaker who invented the keyless winding and time setting system in 1842. He met Antoine Norbert de Patek in 1844 in Paris, during an exhibition of his invention. He joined Patek in Geneva the following year. Founded on May 15th 1845, the Patek & Cie company became Patek Philippe & Cie in 1851.
A property of certain crystals such as quartz. The piezo-electricity of quartz means that it is deformed and vibrates under the effect of a low-intensity electric current. Its vibrations are remarkably constant.
Pin (on a buckle)
A pointed metal prong which goes through various holes in the leather, on traditional straps.
Pin (on a movement)
Small cylindrical pegs driven in, used for fixing, guiding or stopping.
Fastens the strap. A metal buckle composed of a ring or rectangle and a prong called a pin.
A toothed movement part which, combined with a wheel top, forms a wheel. On Patek Philippe watches, the pinions are in hardened steel. Their teeth are polished by hand on a wooden grinding-wheel coated with abrasive paste. The end of the pinion is polished on a leather grinding-wheel.
Hollow metal cylindrical part used for many purposes (pivoting, supporting arbors, protecting parts, etc.) Pipes belong to the category of "other parts".
Small stem or rod.
Movement component which rotates in a fixed support.
Method of depositing or transferring metal on the dial, for a specific surface rendering.
Precious metal. 950 platinum (95% pure platinum and 5% other metals) is used for making watches. It is the hardest material of all to work and tools often break in the process. It takes three to four times longer than working gold.
Watch intended to be carried in the pocket of a waistcoat. Patek Philippe produces Lépine or hunter pocket watches, which are exclusively mechanical.
May refer to a flaw on watch exterior parts: a small burr.
Also known as riveting. Here, hour markers are definitively fixed into the fabric of the watch dial using a diamond grinding wheel or a pointe – a “spotting drill.” The wheel or drill flattens the numerals’ feet once they’ve been slotted through tiny pilot holes in the dial, thus securing them firmly.
Tool or machine used to polish or to create certain decorative motifs such as circular-graining.
Polishing the faces of the pinion leaves
Cleaning the flat inner planes of the pinion’s teeth (the “leaves”). Since the surface is so compact, the pinion is fitted into a wheel top, with a support plate to prevent any damage. Polishing is done with a hard metal grinding wheel coated with abrasive paste. The result is a gleaming sheen, and surfaces with extra protection against oxidation.
Polishing the pinion ends
Pinions are the tiny cogwheels fundamental to the movement of a watch, composed of an axle and wings – elongated gear teeth known as “leaves.” The pivots, or ends, of the pinion are extremely small, but can be worked on if the pinion is fitted into a supporting wheel plate so that the pivots protrude. A leather grinding wheel is used until the ends are smooth and convex.
Polishing the pinion teeth
The minuscule pivot is put on a support, and a wooden grinding wheel painted with abrasive is lowered into its teeth, driving the pinion and polishing the teeth to a silvery gloss. This reduces friction on the steel gears, and gives a longer life to the gear-train.
One of the most important finishing operations, polishing brings each aspect of a watch into sharp relief, highlighting everything from gemsetting and enameling to the engraving. Polishing at Patek Philippe is done by hand, as it always has been, using a “free floating” method, which means without pressure. A tricky technique, it takes experience, a deft touch and speedy reflexes to master. The craftsmen use a series of different sized disks of fabric, felt, or natural or synthetic hair, depending on the effect they need to achieve. Polishing is also perfect to correct almost imperceptible flaws.
A complication that indicates the state of the power reserve: the time during which a mechanical movement can continue running without being wound, ranging from 48 hours to 10 days for Patek Philippe watches.
Pre-assembling bridges means driving the jewels into the sunk holes.
Gemstone cut, with a square base.
Cutting parts, particularly pinions, from rotating cylindrical metal bars, using dedicated tools.
Red varnish placed in the hollows of gilded numbers and logos in order to protect them from subsequent surface treatments.
Abbreviation for "small seconds" in the Patek Philippe typology.
Sharp-edged tool which stamps the material placed on a die, during the cutting out or pressing process.
A button pressed with the finger to activate certain functions, such as those of a chronograph.
Abbreviation for "Perpetual Calendar" in the Patek Philippe typology.
Abbreviation for "annual calendar" in the Patek Philippe typology.
Abbreviation for "Perpetual calendar with retrograde date hand" in the Patek Philippe typology.
Abbreviation for "Minute repeater", in the Patek Philippe typology.
Steel part with straight toothing used in triggering the minute-repeater mechanism.
Railway track minute circle
Peripheral indication of the minutes on the dial reminiscent of the rails on a railway track.
A toothed wheel fixed by a square hole to the barrel arbor. It is placed between the crown wheel and the barrel arbor.
Abbreviation for the "Rectangular shape" of calibers in the Patek Philippe typology.
Hollow cut in bridges and plates to receive various components.
Hand engraving technique, also called pounced ornament. Relief is a "trompe l'oeil" or optical illusion type of modelling in the manner of bas-relief, created using a graver.
Activity of the Grand Complications workshop. The watchmaker assembles, adjusts, files and balances movement parts. He adapts the parts to each other so that they run perfectly.
Restoration or repair, rhabillage
Repairing, restoring a watch to good working order. Refers to service or repair departments (ICS).
A hand with a tip moving over the arc of a circle instead of a circle. When it reaches the end of its path, it returns instantly to its point of departure. Retrograde hands may give various indications such as hours and minutes. Patek Philippe has several watch models with a perpetual calendar with retrograde date hand.
Coating with a fine layer of rhodium by electrolysis.
Metal often used to give a beautiful silvery colour to white gold (for watch exteriors) or for certain movement parts, especially bridges and plates. On the brass or the nickel silver of the latter, it also serves to protect against oxidization.
Term used to describe D-color (exceptional white +) or E-color (exceptional white) diamonds.
System writing figures as letters: Roman numerals: I (1). V (5). X (10. L (50). C (100. D (500). M (1000).
Component of self-winding movements, synonymous with oscillating weight. The rotor is a heavy part which rotates or oscillates thanks to wrist movements and automatically winds the mainspring. Nonetheless, when the watch is not worn for a certain period of time, one resorts to manual winding to reactivate the accumulation of energy in the barrel. Patek Philippe rotors, which are mounted on ball-bearing mechanisms, are always in 18 or 22-carat gold. When they are particularly small in size, they are called mini-rotors.
On a rounding-off cutter, the watchmaker operates a milling-cutter to correct the teeth and the diameter. This operation is performed exclusively when restoring antique watches, or when the watchmaker is working on the basis of a movement blank.
Referred to in French as "bassiné", in reference to "bassine" type cases with rounded profile that are smooth all around. For example, certain hour markers are referred to as round-polished markers.
Complication that consists of indicating solar time (real time) thanks to a second Minutes hand.
Abbreviation for "center sweep second hand" in the Patek Philippe typology.
A polishing technique where the surface of the metal is “drawn out” or smoothed with a tool coated in fine emery paste to achieve a matt appearance and a finely striated effect.
Describes a shiny surface toned down by a slightly frosted effect.
Refers to a flaw on watch exterior parts: small line, shallow furrow.
A self-winding movement is a mechanical movement that is wound by wrist movements thanks to the oscillating weight (or rotor).
A stylus with a metal tip used to push the correctors. Setting styluses are made by Patek Philippe and delivered with all watches requiring them.
Device facilitating the mobility of jewels so as to absorb shocks.
Abbreviation for "sidereal time" in the Patek Philippe typology.
A complication that displays sidereal time. It is based on the earth's rotation in relation to a fixed point, such as a star. It is invariable for a given point and shorter than the average time of 3 min. 56 sec. per day (23 hours, 56 minutes, 4 seconds /24 hours).
Sinking the holes
A concave chamfer or incurving edge – called a sink – is carved into a previously machined hole and highly polished. The chamfer not only enables easier positioning of screws, but also ensures that a jewel driven into a hole will shine with even more radiance.
Sinking the wheels
In the past when oils were less stable, the sinking of wheels kept the oil more directed toward the axis. Today, it’s a solely aesthetic job. The different wheels all receive a polished sink – a concave chamfer or slightly hollowed groove – made using a diamond cutting tool on a mechanical lathe, which is lowered onto the tiny, impeccably placed piece.
Sinking a recess or concave chamfer (slightly hollowed cut edge).
Refers to a movement that is open worked and engraved by hand.
On a striking or minute repeater watch, the part that slides along the case middle to activate the striking mechanism or switches it to silent mode.
A potential characteristic of the mainspring. When the watch is worn, it is automatically wound constantly and when coiled to the maximum, excess tension might break the mainspring. The outermost tip of the spring is thus not entirely fixed. It is equipped with a slipping spring, a blade that slides intermittently against the inside wall of the drum equipped with three notches if the tension becomes excessive.
Small seconds hand
Seconds indicated on a small subdial, and not in the center.
Usually used on a movement component. With the tiny steel part sitting on a cork work base, all lines and scratches are blended away (or “drawn out”), most often with emery paper.
Date of the longest day and the shortest day of the year. There are two solstices per year, corresponding to the start of the summer and to that of the winter.
Split seconds chronograph
An additional complication within a chronograph. A split seconds chronograph features an additional seconds hand that is superimposed on the chronograph hand. It enables measurement of a lap or split time, without stopping the measurement in progress. This process can be repeated several times in a row. After displaying the split time, the additional seconds hand catches up with the chronograph hand.
A thin metal rod fixed between the horns/lugs (or attachments) of the case by means of two small holes on the side, for attaching the leather strap or metal bracelet. On Patek Philippe watches, the spring bars are in gold when the cases are in gold, since they wear out less when gold rubs against gold than when steel rubs against gold. This also diminishes the risk of the spring bar and case working loose and causing the strap/bracelet to drop off.
A steel blade that pulls a lever to its point of departure.
Abbreviation for "Skeleton" in the Patek Philippe typology.
Type of wheel with large triangular teeth, periodically locked by a jumper-spring. Its shape resembles that of a star.
Metal cylindrical movement part.
Battery-driven motor which distributes the energy in a quartz movement. It plays the same role as the escapement in a mechanical movement.
With a tool like an abrasive pencil, the craftsman rubs parallel strokes along the squared-off sides of a part, leaving the metal with a velvety matt slub.
Strip/band of leather (or other non-metal material) that holds the watch to the wrist.
A complication which strikes or chimes (on request by operating a slide piece, or automatically). There are several types of striking mechanism. Patek Philippe produces the following types:
Small cylinder driven or screwed in, serving as a support for a part to turn freely.
A dial finish obtained by brushing the surface with an abrasive paste to create rays spreading from the center to the rim.
Cutting a screw-thread on a rod or in a hole.
Simultaneous indication of the time in several time zones. The most common models are dual time zone watches which give home time and local time in the place one is traveling to. Patek Philippe also produces a model called "World Time", which simultaneously displays the time in 24 time zones.
Measuring elapsed time by means of a chronograph.
Abbreviation for "Tourbillon", in the Patek Philippe typology.
Refers to diamonds of F (Rare white+) or G (Rare white) colour.
A device invented in 1801 by A.-L. Breguet, eliminates variations in rate due to gravity, in vertical positions. The tourbillon comprises a mobile carriage carrying the escapement and balance and spring assembly components. Crafting it represents an impressive technical accomplishment. At Patek Philippe, 69 tiny parts are housed inside a space with a diameter of around 10 millimetres, and which together weigh just 0.3 gram.
The removal of any minute burrs or tiny scraps of material left on the dial plate or bridge by machining, usually using a scraper with a narrow spear-like head.
Refers to a bracelet in a composite material from the Aquanaut sports collection by Patek Philippe. Virtually indestructible even in a natural salt water or extremely cold environment, it is remarkably resistant to traction and to ultra-violet rays.
Fashioning with a lathe, whether hand-operated or engine-driven.
Fine pincers used to pick up small objects (always used in plural form).
Representing a contemporary interpretation of the Gondolo ladies' model, this collection inspired by the Art Deco movement is based on a double-shafted cambered case (4824). Twenty~4® watches lovingly caress the lines of the wrist by adopting a seductively curved silhouette, extended by a broad, yet extremely thin bracelet. They are available in two sizes (medium and small), three materials (steel, white or rose gold) , in jewelled watch and Haute Joaillerie versions.
Variation in rate
When referring to watches, means the gain or loss each day. This is particularly noticeable in a mechanical watch, and virtually nil in a quartz watch. It must fall within strict tolerance thresholds in order for the movement to be granted chronometer certification.
A decoration, usually used on dials, achieved with two consecutive styles of sand-blasting, first by bombarding the metal with a mix of powdered rock and water until the surface has a fine, matt nap, then using cream of tartar as an abrasive, which imparts a cream-colored, velour look.
Vertical satin brushing
A dial decoration technique using a small brush with firm copper bristles and an abrasive paste. The brush is then drawn carefully downward.
In a mechanical watch, the movement of the balance and spring assembly in one direction, forwards and backwards. In a quartz watch, the simple vibration of the quartz. A vibration is equivalent to a half-oscillation.
Case fitted with a watch movement which shows the time and various additional indications with varying degrees of complexity. Patek Philippe produces wristwatches and pocket watches.
See "Striking mechanism".
Movement part which, together with a pinion, forms a wheel.
Circular movement part (wheel top + pinion) that spins around an axis and transmits force or energy. At Patek Philippe, the wheels are chamfered, circular satin finished, sunk and gilded. Their teeth are polished by hand on a wooden grinding-wheel coated with abrasive paste.
Part of a mechanical watch, designed for winding:
Winding the spring of a mechanical watch. This winding may be done manually or automatically by wrist movements.
Watch intended to be worn on the wrist. Patek Philippe produces mechanical and quartz wristwatches.
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