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1
2
2
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
E
E
F
F
G
G
H
H
I
I
J
J
L
L
M
M
N
N
O
O
P
P
Q
Q
R
R
S
S
T
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U
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V
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W
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1

10J

Abbreviation for « 10-day power reserve » in the Patek Philippe typology.

2

24H

Abbreviation for "24-hour dial", in the Patek Philippe typology.

A

Amplitude

Measurement in degrees of the movement of a balance-and-spring assembly: amplitude is the angle between the position of equilibrium and its maximum elongation.

Analogue

Refers to time display using hands.

Aperture

Dial opening revealing the indications provided on disks rotating under the dial.

Applique

Raised numeral or hour-marker, applied to or riveted to the dial. At Patek Philippe, appliques are always in gold and are sometimes diamond-set.

Appropriage

An activity carried out by the Grand Complications workshop. The watchmakers themselves perform certain finishing operations such as polishing steel parts or chamfering bridges.

Aquanaut

A collection inspired by the Nautilus, created in 1996. It is distinguished by the complexity of its case shape, equipped with a screw-down crown, framing a superbly finished black textured dial. Aquanaut watches are available in two sizes (medium and large) and in two versions (gold and steel), on a « Tropical » composite strap or metal bracelet.

Arabic

Usual way of showing the numerals. Arabic numerals: 1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.0. As opposed to Roman numerals: I, II,III...

Arm

Elongated part linking certain parts of a mechanism within a movement (such as the arm of a wheel, for example).

Art Deco

An artistic movement stemming from the Decorative Arts Exhibition in Paris in 1925, which asserts a taste for straight lines and the geometrical interpretation of nature's forms.

Attachment

See « Lugs ».

B

Back

The lower part of the case, fixed beneath the case middle. The case, either in metal or in sapphire crystal to reveal the movement, may be of the screw-down, snap-on, screw-on or hinged dust cover type.

  • Screw-down back: the back and the case middle are respectively fitted with a screw thread and are thus screwed to each other.
  • Snap-on back: the back is held on to the case middle by pressure.
  • Screw-on back: the back is held on to the case middle by four screws.
  • Hinged dust cover: the sapphire crystal is held on to the case middle by pressure, and the dust cover is hinged to the case middle, enabling one to open to reveal the movement.
On Patek Philippe watches, the back may also be integrated with the case middle. On those kind of models, the watch is equipped with a movement with a "split stem".

Baguette

A gemstone cut.

Balance roller

Disc-shaped escapement component. The balance roller receives the impulses from the pallets via its impulse-pin.

Balance and spring assembly

The regulating organ of a mechanical movement. The balance-and-spring assembly, composed of a balance and a balance-spring, oscillates under the impetus of the escapement. In Patek Philippe watches, balance-and-spring assemblies are generally of the Gyromax type.

Balance-cock

Synonymous with a balance-bridge. The balance-cock has a special shape, from which it gets its name, which reveals the balance.

Balance-spring

Small spring coiled into a spiral, an integral part of the balance-and-spring assembly.

Ball-bearing mechanism

Mechanical device enabling two parts to roll over each other instead of sliding.

Barrel

The part of a mechanical movement that enables the accumulation of energy. The barrel is composed of a wheel and drum (cylindrical case) with a cover. It houses the mainspring which coils around the barrel arbor under the impetus of the ratchet wheel.

Barrel arbor

The stem around which the mainspring coils.

Barrel drum

The lateral wall of the barrel, fitted with a hook to receive the mainspring.

Base plate

Central plate of the movement, made in brass or nickel silver, on which the movement components are assembled. The upper side of the base plate is the side facing the case back which receives the movement parts. The under side of the base plate is the side facing the dial.

Baton

Refers to hour-markers or hands featuring the elongated shape of a baton.

Bauhaus

A German school of architecture and applied arts, renowned for having initiated the artistic movement which holds that function determines form. The Bauhaus was founded in 1919 by Walter Gropius in Weimar.

Benzine

A hydrocarbon with solvent properties.

Bezel

Upper part of the case which holds the glass. It is fixed above the case middle.

Bienfacture

A French word with Swiss roots (basically meaning "to make well") which refers to the good quality of a piece of work or an object.

Binocular magnifying glass

Optical enlargement instrument with twin eyepieces enabling one to look with both eyes at once.

Blue

A protective varnish used to coat all parts of the case and metal bracelet after polishing.

Bracket

A kind of support or rest.

Brass

Alloy of copper and zinc.

Breguet

  • Abraham-Louis Breguet: Swiss watchmaker established in Paris (1747-1823), whose inventions include the tourbillon escapement
  • Breguet numerals: numerals designed by A.-Louis Breguet, adopted by Patek Philippe on certain dials.
  • Breguet hands: hollowed-tip hands designed by A.-Louis Breguet, adopted by Patek Philippe on certain watch models.

Bridge

Movement part fixed to the base plate, in which the pivot of mobile parts turn. Generally speaking, bridges are named after the mobile parts they carry. Among the easiest to recognize is the balance-bridge also named as balance-cock.

Brilliant

Brilliant or full-cut diamond. Brilliant is the most widely used cut for diamonds. It comprises 57 facets, meaning 1 table surrounded with 32 facets for the crown and 24 for the culet.

Burin

Engraver's chisel.

Byzantine

Style of chain bracelet, made from gold threads.

Beveling

See chamfering.

Blank

The first incarnation of the dial plate before it’s worked on.

C

C

Abbreviation for « calendar » = simple date = simple calendar in the Patek Philippe typology.

Cabled

Refers to a hand shaped like a cable.

Calatrava

An emblematic and quintessentially classic Patek Philippe collection since 1932. The lines of this timeless watch with a round case for men and ladies, are directly inspired by the Bauhaus artistic movement. Featuring a bezel that may be flat, round, gem-set or adorned with a hobnail pattern, the watch itself may be ultra-thin or fitted with a cover protecting the sapphire case back.

Calendar

A complication that provides the various indications of the conventional calendar such as the date, the week, the month and the year. Patek Philippe watches include:

  • Simple calendars: they give the date through an aperture or by means of a hand, indicating the number of the day from 1 to 31 within the month. They must be manually adjusted at the end of 30-day months and at the end of February.
  • Annual calendar: a complete calendar (day, date and month), patented in 1996, which requires a single manual adjustment each year, at the end of February.
  • Perpetual calendars, which take account of monthly variations, including those of leap years, until the year 2100 (the next century year not divisible by 400).
  • The secular perpetual calendar, which takes account of all the variables in our calendar, including that of century years not divisible by 400. This is the most sophisticated calendar in existence. It powers certain pocket watches such as the Calibre 89.

Caliber

Originally synonymous with size or dimension. Watchmakers then began to use the term to refer to the movement. Patek Philippe has 15 base calibres. They are used either as they are or to serve as a « base » for additional developments or functions. There are thus 38 different calibers for wristwatches and 6 for pocket watches in regular production within the Manufacture.

Cannon-pinion

In a movement, the pinion that controls the motion-work (the gear train that drives the hour, minute and seconds hands).

Cam

A disk with a special profile on which a sprung lever rests.

Carat

  • A unit of the gold purity index for gold alloys. Pure or fine gold weighs 24 carats. Watches and jewellery are crafted from 18-carat or 750 gold, an alloy containing 18/24ths or 75% of pure gold.
  • A unit of weight for precious stones. One carat corresponds to 0.2 grams.

Case

The watch case is generally composed of three parts: the case middle, the bezel and the case back.

Case middle

The middle part of the case, placed between the bezel and the back. It houses the movement.

Cathedral

See « Gong ».

Casing-ring

Ring surrounding the movement and holding it inside the case.

Celestial canopy

Complication that provides a representation of the sky, as it may be observed at night. Also known as sky chart, it enables one to follow the positions of the stars and that of the moon and to visualise the various phases.

CH

Abbreviation for « Chronograph » in the Patek Philippe typology.

Chain bracelet

A bracelet for which the links are produced one by one from a gold wire.

Chamfering

Also known as beveling or in French, anglage. Here, the sharp edge between the surface and the flank of a component is manually cut or filed away to a smooth 45° curve, followed by polishing with a mechanical buffer. A chamfer is typically used to increase resistance to wear, or for aesthetic reasons.

Champlevé

Hand engraving technique. Champlevé consists of hollowing out a metal plate with a flat graver, thus forming small cavities to receive the enamel.

Chenier (or knuckle)

Small tube into which one inserts a pin to form a hinge.

CHR

Abbreviation of « Split-seconds chronograph » in the Patek Philippe typology.

Chronograph

Watch complication enabling measurement of the duration of an event. A classic chronograph comprises a chronograph or seconds hand circling the dial and another hand adding up the minutes on a counter or totalizer. Some have additional counters. Be careful not to confuse a chronograph with a chronometer!

Chronometer

A watch featuring high precision certified by an official body. In Switzerland, rating certificates are granted, on a one-by-one basis, by the COSC (Swiss Official Chronometer Testing Institute). Be careful not to confuse a chronometer with a chronograph!

Circular graining

In French, called perlage due to the finished resemblance to a row of tiny pearls. Here, the main plate and attached bridges are etched with a pattern of interlaced circles or bead shapes. To create the pattern, the flat end of a piece of pegwood coated with emery paste is fitted into a rotating head and pressed meticulously down on the plate to make perfectly linear rows.

Circular satin finish

To form fine circular lines on the surface of a metal movement component, using a hand lathe or fine emery paper.

CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora. This agreement between nations is intended to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild plants and animals does not threaten the survival of the species to which they belong. Patek Philippe watch straps are made from the leather of farmed animals subject to the CITES.

CL

Abbreviation for « Celestial canopy » (or sky chart) in the Patek Philippe typology.

Cloisonné

See « Enamel ».

CNC

Acronym for Computerised Numerical Control.

Column wheel

Central element of the split-seconds chronograph mechanism which gives the various parts (operating-lever hook, hammer, coupling lever and brake) their appropriate positions.

Comet's tail

Refers to a flaw on exterior parts: material slightly hollowed around a tiny burr.

Corrector

Button integrated within the case middle, which is pressed using the setting stylus to adjust certain specific functions.

Consecutive

Relating to a sequence, a well ordered succession (as opposed to simultaneous).

COSC

Swiss Official Chronometer Testing Institute

Counter

In a classic chronograph, a subdial indicating the time elapsed in minutes. There are also counters for hours or fractions of a second.

Crown

A button (which is often fluted), operated between the thumb and forefinger that is pulled into various positions and turned, generally to set the time or adjust the date. On mechanical watches, the crown (or winding crown) also serves to wind the movement. See « Winding crown ».

Cut

Gemstone cut: an essential element in highlighting the stones. The proportions chosen determine three physical phenomena: internal reflection, diffraction or dispersion, and scintillation or fire. Professionals have established a scale for evaluating the quality of cuts. Patek Philippe uses only the best, referred to as "very good" and "excellent".

Cutting the teeth

This operation is performed by means of a milling-cutter. This tool performs two movements: a rotating movement linked to that of the wheel and pinion to be cut, and a lengthwise movement (in the direction of the axis of the mobile part).

Circular satin brushing

A polishing technique used for a case, and resulting in a velvety, tunnel-like image.

D

Date of Easter

Complication that displays the date of Easter according to this rule: the first Sunday after the full moon which follows the spring equinox. The patented mechanism is housed within the Calibre 89 watch.

Dauphine

Refers to hands with an elongated triangular shape.

Diamond

Precious stone: pure crystallized carbon, generally colorless, occasionally pink, yellow or blue in colour. A diamond, which is exceptionally hard, scratches all other bodies, but can only be scratched by itself. Patek Philippe uses the highest quality of diamonds, determined by the combination of what are known as the « 4 Cs »: Color, Clarity (purity), Cut (shape) and Carat (weight). On the color grading scale established by diamond professionals, Top Wesselton internally flawless diamonds corresponds to diamonds rated F (rare white +) or G (rare white), loupe-clean when enlarged 10 times.

Dial

Plate with a metal base, visible through a glass, which carries certain indications such as the hours, minutes and seconds. On Patek Philippe watches, dials are generally in brass. The exceptions are those that are gold colored, sun burst blue, models paved with precious stones, or for some Grand Complications which are made from solid gold plates. Particular care is devoted to their finish. They may be embossed, guilloché, galvanized, painted, metallic, gem-set or genuine enamel.

Die

Steel plate representing the hollowed reproduction of a part to be cut out or stamped. The material placed on the die takes its shape by being struck with a punch.

Digital

In watchmaking, refers to display by means of numbers with no hands.

Disk

Flat, thin disk carrying the indications which are successively displayed through an aperture as the disk rotates under the dial.

Display

In either a mechanical watch or a quartz watch, the display is shown by hands or through apertures, driven by a gear train.

Divine proportion

A mathematical ratio of homogenous size symbolizing the perfect equilibrium of shapes (1/1.6181). Also known as "the golden section", it forms the basis of the design of the Golden Ellipse.

Drilling

Penetrating, passing through. For exemple, the drilling of pivot-holes.

Drilling for stone setting

Preparation for gem-setting by forming the holes that will accommodate the stones. This operation is a machining operation.

Dual time zone

See « Time zones ».

Décalque

Also known as tampography, transfer printing or pad printing. A printing process that transfers a two-dimensional image onto any two- or three-dimensional (or otherwise difficult) object. In watchmaking, an inked silicone pad is positioned meticulously over the raw blank of a dial; the pad is lowered to imprint the words and numerals onto the dial surface, which is then allowed to dry before any further layer of transfer is added.

E

E

Abbreviation of « Electronic » in the Patek Philippe typology.

Easter

See "Date of Easter"

Electrolysis

Chemical decomposition achieved by the action of an electric current. Certain metals are electrolyzed in order to apply them on others in fine layers.

Enamel

Translucent substance that takes on various colors by adding metallic oxides. When fired in the furnace, it adheres to metal and acquires the consistency of glass. It may be applied in a single colour on certain dials. Figurative painting is also used to create decorative motifs. On Patek Philippe watches, these decorative motifs are generally created using two techniques:

  • Miniature enamel painting: the reproduction of paintings in miniature, generally on the cases of pocket watches. Small touches and successive layers are applied to a white enamel base and successively fired in a furnace at 850°C. A layer of transparent enamel is then applied to perfect this work. This finish is called "flux".
  • Cloisonné enamel: this technique, generally used for table clocks, consists of creating cavities marked out by gold wires, in which the enamels are applied in layers and successively fired in a furnace at 850°C.

Energy distribution

  • In a mechanical watch, the energy is distributed progressively by a step-by-step escapement, consisting of pallets and an escape wheel with a special profile.
  • In a quartz watch, the energy is distributed by a stepping motor.

Energy production

  • In a mechanical watch, this implies manual or automatic winding.
  • In a quartz watch, energy is produced by a battery.

Embossing

Stamping a motif in metal with imprints embossed using a press.

Emerald

Green colored gemstone, a variety of beryl. Most widely used gemstone cut for emeralds.

Emery paper

Abrasive mixture coated on paper. Emery paper is used in particular for polishing, smoothing down and creating a circular satin finish.

Energy transmission and division of time

Stage no. 3 in the working of any watch: in both mechanical and quartz watches, the energy is transmitted by a gear train which simultaneously divides up time. In the former case, it is powered by the mainspring; and in the latter, by a stepping motor.

Engraving

A deeply creative skill where aesthetically pleasing shapes and flourishes are etched on cases and dials. The artist first creates the design with a pencil sketch, then transfers it to the metal surface with a burin for fine lines, or a graver for broader furrows, focusing on the tiny canvas through a binocular microscope.

EQ

Abbreviation of "Equation of time" in the Patek Philippe typology.

Equation of time

Complication which indicates the difference between conventional time (mean time) and the time determined by the position of the sun (real time). This difference ranges between –16 and + 14 minutes, depending on the day of the year.

Equinox

The date when the duration of the day is equal to that of the night. There are two equinoxes per year which correspond to the start of spring and that of autumn.

Escapement

The organ of a mechanical movement that enables distribution of energy step by step (and not all at once). The escapement, composed of a wheel with a special shape (curved teeth) and pallets, maintains the oscillations of the regulating organ, the balance-and-spring assembly.

Etoquiaux

Banking of a lever escapement when it is cut out of the plate and is not in the form of pins (solid banking). This term is specific to Geneva watchmaking.

Exterior

Set of external parts of a watch: case, dial, hands, glass, crown, strap/bracelet, etc. (to the exclusion of movement components).

Electroplating

See galvanization.

Emerizing

A finishing technique used on metal cases and bracelets to achieve a smooth and shiny surface and remove any flaws. The process involves gently rubbing the piece against an abrasive strip in a figure-of-eight pattern to give a soft luster. This is also called lapping when an oil- or water-based slurry of sanding abrasive is used.

Enameling

A technique where colored glass or enamel pigments are ground to a fine powder, mixed with water or oil and painted meticulously onto a prepared metal surface. Once dry, the piece is fired in a kiln at temperatures of around 850°C, so that the powdered glass or pigment melts to form a new, impregnable surface and fuses to the metal base.

F

Faceted

Having facets, such as on gemstones.

Fancy diamond

Colored diamond.

Fine working

Part of the case hand-finishing. This stage includes trimming or filing off of residue material, and it’s here that attachments are soldered, hinges are made for cases with dust covers and their openings adjusted, and preparations are made for polishing.

Finishing

Refers to the work of a company that buys watch components from outside and only handles assembly, adjustment, fitting the hands and casing up. One must distinguish between a finishing workshop as opposed to a Manufacture.

Finishing operations

At Patek Philippe, this term encompasses a set of finishing operations performed by hand on watch parts, in keeping with the Geneva tradition. Most of the finishing operations which contribute high value added are part of the Patek Philippe Seal criteria.

Flux

See "Enamel"

Fork

Tip of the pallets which alternately pushes the impulse-pin placed under the balance and spring assembly so as to maintain its oscillations.

Fold-over clasp

A clasp that opens by folding over, without being detached from the two parts of the bracelet.

Frequency

Number of oscillations per second. Frequency is expressed in Hertz (Hz). 1 hertz = 1 oscillation = 2 vibrations per second.

  • The frequency of the balance and spring assembly of mechanical watches is no higher than 5 Hertz (5 oscillations/sec.).
  • The frequency of quartz is 32,000 Hertz (32,000 oscillations/second).

FUS

Abbreviation for « time zone » in the Patek Philippe typology.

Facetting

Angling the planes of some raised three-dimensional numerals, which will sit on a dial. A machine fitted with sharp diamond tools is used to incise the batons or hour markers to make visibility even more acute.

Fitting

Fitters assemble the movement components and the parts that make up the case and bracelet, combining the cases, bezels, backs, sapphire crystals, joints, and winding crowns. Operations are carried out in conditions of absolute cleanliness. At this stage, grueling tests are carried out on each watch, for everything from water resistance to design finesse.

G

Galvanized/Galvanic plating

Technique for plating metal by electrolysis. For example, the bridges and plates are protected from oxidation by a fine layer of rhodium.

Gearing

Gear train composed of wheels and toothed pinions.

Gear-train

Set of wheels driven in an interdependent movement. The gear-train generally called the going train is the one that transmits energy and divides up time. It comprises the hour wheel, the minute wheel and the seconds wheel. Variable sets of wheels result in reduction and in different speeds of rotation:

  • Intermediate wheel gear train: maintains the speed of rotation
  • Multiplying gear train: the movement accelerates from one wheel to the next.
  • Reduction gear train: the rotation slows down from one wheel to the next.

Gemmologist

Specialist of fine stones and precious stones, scientifically called "gems".

Gem-setter

Craftsman who sets fine stones or precious stones.

Gemsetting

Precious stones – diamonds, rubies, sapphires or emeralds – are set manually at Patek Philippe, in the traditional way. They are never adhesively bonded, but positioned ultra-securely by folding over the metal collars that surround them. Stones must be fastidiously placed (level, pointing in the same direction and all at the same height) to bring out their full shimmer and radiance.

Geneva stripes / "Côtes de Genève"

Famous wavelike decorative pattern created on the bridges and oscillating weights of Patek Philippe watches. The tool required is crafted from boxwood by the craftsman himself, coated in abrasive paste and then pressed manually in order to remove an extremely small amount of material.

Glass

Thin transparent plate through which one reads off the time, and which protects the dial. A glass may also be fitted on the case back to reveal the movement. The glasses used for Patek Philippe watches are always in scratch-resistant sapphire and may thus also be referred to as sapphire crystals.

Gold-plating

Coating with a thin film of gold.

Golden Ellipse

Collection characterized by an elliptical case, inspired by the golden section. This "divine proportion" is not a measurement, but a mathematical ratio of homogenous size corresponding to 1/1.6181 and symbolizing the perfect equilibrium of shapes. Golden Ellipse watches were created in 1968 for men, and ladies' versions were subsequently introduced.

Gondolo

  • Derived from the name of Gondolo & Labourio, the Brazilian company that was a client of Patek Philippe between 1902 and 1930.
  • The collection in tribute to the house of Gondolo & Labourio. Launched in 1993, these watches for men and ladies are rectangular, square or cushion-shaped. Inspired by the Art Deco movement characterised by perspective and pure lines, they stem from a desire to reproduce shaped watches that Patek Philippe has designed in the past.

Gong

Striking mechanism part:

  • Generally speaking, gongs are circular steel coils, fixed at one end and which progressively surround the minute repeater movement. When struck by hammers, they vibrate and produce sounds.
  • Those that wrap almost twice around the mechanism are called "Cathedral" gongs. This enhances both the quality and duration of their sound.

Grande Sonnerie

See "Striking mechanism".

Graver

A pointed tool for engraving.

Grinding-wheel

A disc used for polishing, coated with an abrasive substance.

Guilloché work

Also called engine turning. A type of engraving used for cases, bracelets, dials, bezels, and sometimes movement components, and carried out using lathes, many of which, at Patek Philippe, are antique, hand-operated machines. The technique results in a geometrically intricate, delicate repeating pattern and calls for dexterity and a good eye – the human dimension is what instills beauty here. The engravings are often made on pocket watch dust covers, while the bezels of Calatrava watches feature “Clous de Paris,” a crisp pattern that forms tiny pyramid shapes.

Gyromax

A system of adjusting the balance and spring assembly, patented by Patek Philippe in 1949 and 1951. The Gyromax balance and spring assembly, which equips the company's mechanical movements, replaces the traditional index-assembly or regulator-assembly system. The adjustment depends on the direction of the asymmetrical inertia-blocks placed on the balance-ring, enabling one to modify a watch which is gaining or losing time.

Galvanization

Also known as electroplating, this is the process of applying a protective coating over a metal to prevent rusting, which helps keep the material free from impediment (damp or sea air can all create corrosion over time) and in perfect working order for much longer. During galvanization, one metal is electrochemically covered with another – for example, bridges and plates are protected by a fine layer of rhodium. Electroplating can also be used to change a dial’s color.

Geneva stripes

Also known as Côtes de Genève. Decorative broad, straight stripes ground onto parts of watch movements such as plates, bridges or rotors. At Patek Philippe, the artisan coats a wooden machine-held tool with abrasive paste and repeatedly presses this down on the component as it is pushed, on its workplate, away. This removes a tiny quantity of material from the surface and creates a very slightly three-dimensional wave pattern.

H

Hobnail pattern

Motif forming small pyramid shapes which is among the most famous types of guilloché work, engraved ornamentation composed of regularly interwoven hollowed lines.

Hair

Refers to a hand that looks somewhat like a hair.

Hammer

A component in striking watches: Hammers are small levers with a weight at one end which strike gongs to produce sounds.

Hand

Metal part which points to various indications on the dial. At Patek Philippe, it may take a variety of shapes and forms, including dauphine, Breguet, leaf, baton, hair, pear, cabled or Louis XV.

Hardened

Refers to the steel parts used in movements: See "Hardening".

Hardening

Modification of the molecular structure of the steel part in order to make it harder or more flexible. Firing it in the furnace at a temperature of 800°C and then cooling it down quickly in oil at around 40°C make the metal harder, but also more brittle. To stabilize the material, it is reheated to various temperatures and for various lengths of time, depending on the flexibility required for the function the part is to serve.

Heart

Gemstone cut.

Heart (system)

Steel part enabling the return in one or the other direction of the chronograph hand and/or the split seconds chronograph hand.

Hertz

Unit of frequency of a movement.

HG

Abbreviation for "hour shown through an aperture" in the Patek Philippe typology.

Hour marker

Symbolic character serving to indicate the subdivisions of time, on the dial. The hour markers, whether pointed baton or rounded baton, may be flat (painted) or raised (appliques). They are to be distinguished from numerals, which are characters representing numbers.

HS

Abbreviation for "Jumping Hour", in the Patek Philippe typology.

HU

Abbreviation for "World Time", in the Patek Philippe typology.

Hunter pocket watch

Pocket watch with a cover, which is distinguished by a winding stem at 3 o'clock and a seconds hand placed along the 12 o'clock – 6 o'clock axis.

I

Impulse-pin

Cylindrical, elongated escapement part, generally made from ruby. The impulse pin receives the impulses given by the pallet-fork. It is fixed to the roller, under the balance-spring for which it serves to maintain the oscillations.

Index-assembly

Traditional system for adjusting the balance and spring assembly. In Patek Philippe movements, apart from calibre 16-250, it is replaced by an exclusive system named Gyromax.

Inertia-block

Small asymmetrical metal part which acts by inertia. The Gyromax balance and spring assembly, patented by Patek Philippe, is poised thanks to adjustable inertia-blocks. This equilibrium governs the regularity of rate of the movement, with a minimum gain or loss.

Inertial flywheel

Regulates the speed of rotation in striking watches.

Integrated circuit

Component of quartz movements which powers the electrical organs, transmits energy to the stepping motor and divides up the frequency of the quartz.

Island

Mode of operation of the various Grand Complications workshops at Patek Philippe, which work as self-contained units or production islands. The watchmakers individually finish the movement parts, assemble the calibres, the complications and proceed to "fine working" the watches.

IRM

Abbreviation for power reserve indicator, a complication which displays the time left during which a mechanical movement can continue to run without winding.

IZR

A complication invented by Patek Philippe, the IZR, or state of winding indicator, shows the best moment to wind a self-winding watch. Be careful not to confuse IZR and IRM!

J

Jewel

In a movement, a synthetic ruby that serves to reduce friction on the staffs of the pivots. Jewels belong to the "other parts" category.

Jumper

Steel part that locks certain wheels, known as star wheels, by resting against their teeth. Also known as a jumper spring.

Jumping hour

Hour appearing in an aperture thanks to a rotating disk, and which replaces an Hours hand. It is referred to as "jumping" since, every hour on the hour, it changes by jumping abruptly from one numeral to the next.

L

Lathe

Machine tool used to fashion parts by causing them to rotate. Lathes may be operated by hand or automatically.

Leaf

Term used in watchmaking to refer to a hand shaped like a leaf.

Leap year

In our calendar, a year when the month of February has 29 days instead of 28. Generally speaking, leap years occur every 4 years. Century years, which are multiples of 100, are an exception: only those divisible by 400 are leap years.

Lépine

  • Jean-Antoine Lépine: French watchmaker (1720-1814) who invented the watch named after him.
  • Lépine watch or caliber: pocket watch without a cover, named after Jean-Antoine Lépine, characterised by a winding-stem at 12 o'clock and a small seconds hand placed along the 12 o'clock – 6 o'clock axis.

Lever

Pivoting part subject to the action of a spring.

Line-engraving

A hand engraving technique. Fine line engraving, made with a burin.

Louis XV

Refers to a hand with Louis XV style motif.

LU

Abbreviation for "moon phases" in the Patek Philippe typology.

Lugs (horns)

Parts extending from the case middle between which a spring bar holds the strap or bracelet.

Luminescent

Which emits light and is therefore visible at night. The luminescent substance, applied by Patek Philippe on the hands, numerals or hour-markers is non radioactive.

Lever

A steel or brass part within a mechanical watch shaped like a ship's anchor. It makes up the escapement together with a special-shaped wheel with curved teeth, called the lever wheel.

M

Machining

Synonymous with cutting out. Working or fashioning raw material. Forming holes and recesses, milling, turning, drilling and threading are all machining operations. At Patek Philippe, the watch parts are machined on computerized numerical control machines.

Mainspring

Motor spring of a mechanical movement. As it coils inside the barrel, it accumulates energy. As it uncoils, it transmits the energy to the hands via a gear-train. In Patek Philippe watches, the mainspring is fitted with a slipping spring when the movement is self-winding.

Manually wound

A manually wound movement is a mechanical movement that is wound by hand (using the winding crown).

Manufacture

Refers to a company that makes a watch in its entirety: conception, development, production, assembly and adjustment. One speaks of a Manufacture as opposed to a finishing workshop.

Marquise

Elongated gemstone cut, synonymous with navette cut.

Mechanically made bracelet

A bracelet with metal links produced on CNC machinery.

Mechanism

Combination of parts which, together, operate a function. A watch movement comprises several mechanisms.

Micro-scratch

Refers to a flawed appearance on watch exterior parts: a tiny, almost invisible scratch.

Milling

A cutting process that removes material from the very surface of a piece, smoothing and refining tiny recesses and shaping holes for gems and hour markers. Performed with a high-speed milling lathe, this is exacting and complex work.

Miniature enamel painting

See "Enamel".

Minute repeater

See "Striking mechanism".

Minute track

The minute track is the mode of displaying the minutes (railway track).

Mirror

Describes the particularly soft and luminous result of polishing. Mirror polish is also called black or specular polish.

Moon phases

A complication which depicts the evolution of the moon, as seen from the earth. The indication is generally shown in an aperture, but may sometimes be displayed by a hand.

Motion-work

In a movement, the motion-work is the gear train which drives the hour, minute and seconds hands.

Movement

There are three types of movements, or calibers, which drive Patek Philippe watches:

  • Mechanical manually wound movements
  • Mechanical self-winding movements.
  • Quartz movements which, in Patek Philippe watches, comprise 10% electronic components and 90% mechanical components.

Movement regulation

Stage no. 5 in the working of any watch:

  • In a mechanical watch, the regularity of the running of the movement is ensured by the oscillations of the balance and spring assembly.
  • In a quartz watch, the regularity of the running of the movement is ensured by the oscillations of the quartz.

Mirror polishing

Also known as poli miroir or poli noir. Regarded as the most demanding of all polishing techniques, true mirror polishing is always done by hand and is found only in the most exceptional timepieces. It’s achieved by rubbing the watch part on a flat zinc plate coated with a paste of very fine diamond dust in oil. The result is a finish that, catching the light from one angle, shines like a silver mirror and, catching it from the other, is a plush matt black.

N

Nautilus

A collection, for men and ladies, created in 1976. Nautilus watches are characterized by the shape of their monobloc case: an octagonal ship's porthole secured by four lateral screws to ensure that it is perfectly sealed and water-resistant. Each of its eight sides is subtly curved to trace a perfect arc of a circle, forming the contours of a great classic.

Navette

Elongated gemstone cut, synonymous with the marquise cut.

Nickel silver

Copper, zinc and nickel alloy, oxidises less easily than brass.

NIHS 92-10 (Norm)

Water resistance norm equivalent to the international ISO-2291 norm. All Patek Philippe watches are tested to around 20% more than the guaranteed value. For example, a watch that is water-resistant to a depth of 25 metres has been tested at a pressure of 3 bars, meaning 30 meters (1 bar = 10 meters).

Numeral

Character representing a number used to indicate the units of time on the dial. The Arabic, Roman or Breguet style numerals may be flat (painted) or raised (appliques). They are different from symbolic characters such as hour markers.

O

Onyx

Fine gemstone, a variety of agate featuring regular concentric zones of various colors. The crowns of Twenty~4® steel watches are set with an onyx.

Opaline-white

A solid white finish with a silky rendering. It is achieved by spraying a silvery coating of powder before applying a transparent layer.

Oscillation

In a mechanical watch, the movement of the balance and spring assembly in both directions, to and fro. In a quartz watch, the double vibration of the quartz. One oscillation comprises two vibrations.

Oscillating weight

See "Rotor".

Other parts

Patek Philippe refers to a certain number of movement parts, apart from the plates, bridges, wheel trains and steel parts, as "other parts".

Oval

Gemstone cut.

P

Palladium

Extremely hard white metal. In Patek Philippe watches, it is used instead of nickel in the composition of white gold.

Patek

Antoine Norbert de Patek (1812-1877). A Pole who settled in Geneva in 1835. He took an interest in highly valuable pocket watches and acquired a significant clientele. In 1839, he founded Patek, Czapek & Cie. He subsequently met watchmaker Jean-Adrien Philippe in 1844 and suggested that they become associates. He then changed the name of the Manufacture in 1845 to become Patek & Cie. It only became Patek Philippe & Cie in 1851.

Pear

  • Hand shape
  • Gemstone cut, shaped like the fruit with the same name.

Petite Sonnerie

See "Striking mechanism".

Philippe

Jean-Adrien Philippe (1815-1894). A French watchmaker who invented the keyless winding and time setting system in 1842. He met Antoine Norbert de Patek in 1844 in Paris, during an exhibition of his invention. He joined Patek in Geneva the following year. Founded on May 15th 1845, the Patek & Cie company became Patek Philippe & Cie in 1851.

Piezo-electric

A property of certain crystals such as quartz. The piezo-electricity of quartz means that it is deformed and vibrates under the effect of a low-intensity electric current. Its vibrations are remarkably constant.

Pinion

A toothed movement part which, combined with a wheel top, forms a wheel. On Patek Philippe watches, the pinions are in hardened steel. Their teeth are polished by hand on a wooden grinding-wheel coated with abrasive paste. The end of the pinion is polished on a leather grinding-wheel.

Pin (on a movement)

Small cylindrical pegs driven in, used for fixing, guiding or stopping.

Pin (on a buckle)

A pointed metal prong which goes through various holes in the leather, on traditional straps.

Pin buckle

Fastens the strap. A metal buckle composed of a ring or rectangle and a prong called a pin.

Pipe

Hollow metal cylindrical part used for many purposes (pivoting, supporting arbors, protecting parts, etc.) Pipes belong to the category of "other parts".

Pivot

Movement component which rotates in a fixed support.

Pivot shank

Small stem or rod.

Plating

Method of depositing or transferring metal on the dial, for a specific surface rendering.

Point

May refer to a flaw on watch exterior parts: a small burr.

Polishing

One of the most important finishing operations, polishing brings each aspect of a watch into sharp relief, highlighting everything from gemsetting and enameling to the engraving. Polishing at Patek Philippe is done by hand, as it always has been, using a “free floating” method, which means without pressure. A tricky technique, it takes experience, a deft touch and speedy reflexes to master. The craftsmen use a series of different sized disks of fabric, felt, or natural or synthetic hair, depending on the effect they need to achieve. Polishing is also perfect to correct almost imperceptible flaws.

Polisher

Tool or machine used to polish or to create certain decorative motifs such as circular-graining.

Pounced ornament

See "Relief".

Power reserve

A complication that indicates the state of the power reserve: the time during which a mechanical movement can continue running without being wound, ranging from 48 hours to 10 days for Patek Philippe watches.

Pre-assembly, Pre-assemble

Pre-assembling bridges means driving the jewels into the sunk holes.

Press (mechanism)

  • A mechanism or device that exercises pressure on a solid object.

Pressing

  • Synonymous with cutting out with a "cutter". Striking the material with a punch on a die to cut out a shape.
  • In making watch exteriors, pressing means not only cutting out but also shaping, correcting or finishing. After cutting out the rough shape of the part, the metal is distorted by pressing successively to obtain the desired shape. Patek Philippe is one of the last watch Manufactures to press its own cases. The Manufacture makes its own press tools.

Princess

Gemstone cut, with a square base.

Profile-turning

Cutting parts, particularly pinions, from rotating cylindrical metal bars, using dedicated tools.

Protective coating

Red varnish placed in the hollows of gilded numbers and logos in order to protect them from subsequent surface treatments.

PS

Abbreviation for "small seconds" in the Patek Philippe typology.

Punch

Sharp-edged tool which stamps the material placed on a die, during the cutting out or pressing process.

Push-button (push-piece)

A button pressed with the finger to activate certain functions, such as those of a chronograph.

Pocket watch

Watch intended to be carried in the pocket of a waistcoat. Patek Philippe produces Lépine or hunter pocket watches, which are exclusively mechanical.

Platinum

Precious metal. 950 platinum (95% pure platinum and 5% other metals) is used for making watches. It is the hardest material of all to work and tools often break in the process. It takes three to four times longer than working gold.

Pointage

Also known as riveting. Here, hour markers are definitively fixed into the fabric of the watch dial using a diamond grinding wheel or a pointe – a “spotting drill.” The wheel or drill flattens the numerals’ feet once they’ve been slotted through tiny pilot holes in the dial, thus securing them firmly.

Polishing the pinion ends

Pinions are the tiny cogwheels fundamental to the movement of a watch, composed of an axle and wings – elongated gear teeth known as “leaves.” The pivots, or ends, of the pinion are extremely small, but can be worked on if the pinion is fitted into a supporting wheel plate so that the pivots protrude. A leather grinding wheel is used until the ends are smooth and convex.

Polishing the faces of the pinion leaves

Cleaning the flat inner planes of the pinion’s teeth (the “leaves”). Since the surface is so compact, the pinion is fitted into a wheel top, with a support plate to prevent any damage. Polishing is done with a hard metal grinding wheel coated with abrasive paste. The result is a gleaming sheen, and surfaces with extra protection against oxidation.

Polishing the pinion teeth

The minuscule pivot is put on a support, and a wooden grinding wheel painted with abrasive is lowered into its teeth, driving the pinion and polishing the teeth to a silvery gloss. This reduces friction on the steel gears, and gives a longer life to the gear-train.

Q

Q

Abbreviation for "Perpetual Calendar" in the Patek Philippe typology.

QA

Abbreviation for "annual calendar" in the Patek Philippe typology.

QR

Abbreviation for "Perpetual calendar with retrograde date hand" in the Patek Philippe typology.

Quartz

  • In its natural state, quartz is a rock crystal.
  • For watch movements, the quartz is manufactured synthetically. It is used for its piezo-electric properties.

R

R

Abbreviation for "Minute repeater", in the Patek Philippe typology.

Rack

Steel part with straight toothing used in triggering the minute-repeater mechanism.

Railway track minute circle

Peripheral indication of the minutes on the dial reminiscent of the rails on a railway track.

Ratchet wheel

A toothed wheel fixed by a square hole to the barrel arbor. It is placed between the crown wheel and the barrel arbor.

REC

Abbreviation for the "Rectangular shape" of calibers in the Patek Philippe typology.

Recess

Hollow cut in bridges and plates to receive various components.

Relief

Hand engraving technique, also called pounced ornament. Relief is a "trompe l'oeil" or optical illusion type of modelling in the manner of bas-relief, created using a graver.

Repassage, Repasser

Activity of the Grand Complications workshop. The watchmaker assembles, adjusts, files and balances movement parts. He adapts the parts to each other so that they run perfectly.

Restoration or repair, rhabillage

Repairing, restoring a watch to good working order. Refers to service or repair departments (ICS).

Retrograde hand

A hand with a tip moving over the arc of a circle instead of a circle. When it reaches the end of its path, it returns instantly to its point of departure. Retrograde hands may give various indications such as hours and minutes. Patek Philippe has several watch models with a perpetual calendar with retrograde date hand.

Rhodium

Metal often used to give a beautiful silvery colour to white gold (for watch exteriors) or for certain movement parts, especially bridges and plates. On the brass or the nickel silver of the latter, it also serves to protect against oxidization.

Rhodium plating

Coating with a fine layer of rhodium by electrolysis.

River

Term used to describe D-color (exceptional white +) or E-color (exceptional white) diamonds.

Roman

System writing figures as letters: Roman numerals: I (1). V (5). X (10. L (50). C (100. D (500). M (1000).

Rotor

Component of self-winding movements, synonymous with oscillating weight. The rotor is a heavy part which rotates or oscillates thanks to wrist movements and automatically winds the mainspring. Nonetheless, when the watch is not worn for a certain period of time, one resorts to manual winding to reactivate the accumulation of energy in the barrel. Patek Philippe rotors, which are mounted on ball-bearing mechanisms, are always in 18 or 22-carat gold. When they are particularly small in size, they are called mini-rotors.

Rounding off

On a rounding-off cutter, the watchmaker operates a milling-cutter to correct the teeth and the diameter. This operation is performed exclusively when restoring antique watches, or when the watchmaker is working on the basis of a movement blank.

Round-polished

Referred to in French as "bassiné", in reference to "bassine" type cases with rounded profile that are smooth all around. For example, certain hour markers are referred to as round-polished markers.

Running equation

Complication that consists of indicating solar time (real time) thanks to a second Minutes hand.

S

S

Abbreviation for "center sweep second hand" in the Patek Philippe typology.

Sapphire

  • Transparent synthetic material for watch glasses (or crystals) which has the property of being scratch-resistant.
  • Gemstone, a variety of corundum. It is generally blue, but may be pink, yellow, etc.

Satin-brushed

Describes a shiny surface toned down by a slightly frosted effect.

Scratch

Refers to a flaw on watch exterior parts: small line, shallow furrow.

Self-winding

A self-winding movement is a mechanical movement that is wound by wrist movements thanks to the oscillating weight (or rotor).

Setting stylus

A stylus with a metal tip used to push the correctors. Setting styluses are made by Patek Philippe and delivered with all watches requiring them.

Shock-absorber

Device facilitating the mobility of jewels so as to absorb shocks.

SID

Abbreviation for "sidereal time" in the Patek Philippe typology.

Sidereal time

A complication that displays sidereal time. It is based on the earth's rotation in relation to a fixed point, such as a star. It is invariable for a given point and shorter than the average time of 3 min. 56 sec. per day (23 hours, 56 minutes, 4 seconds /24 hours).

Sinking

Sinking a recess or concave chamfer (slightly hollowed cut edge).

Slide piece

On a striking or minute repeater watch, the part that slides along the case middle to activate the striking mechanism or switches it to silent mode.

Slipping spring

A potential characteristic of the mainspring. When the watch is worn, it is automatically wound constantly and when coiled to the maximum, excess tension might break the mainspring. The outermost tip of the spring is thus not entirely fixed. It is equipped with a slipping spring, a blade that slides intermittently against the inside wall of the drum equipped with three notches if the tension becomes excessive.

Small seconds hand

Seconds indicated on a small subdial, and not in the center.

Smoothing down

Usually used on a movement component. With the tiny steel part sitting on a cork work base, all lines and scratches are blended away (or “drawn out”), most often with emery paper.

Solstice

Date of the longest day and the shortest day of the year. There are two solstices per year, corresponding to the start of the summer and to that of the winter.

Split seconds chronograph

An additional complication within a chronograph. A split seconds chronograph features an additional seconds hand that is superimposed on the chronograph hand. It enables measurement of a lap or split time, without stopping the measurement in progress. This process can be repeated several times in a row. After displaying the split time, the additional seconds hand catches up with the chronograph hand.

Spring

A steel blade that pulls a lever to its point of departure.

Spring bar

A thin metal rod fixed between the horns/lugs (or attachments) of the case by means of two small holes on the side, for attaching the leather strap or metal bracelet. On Patek Philippe watches, the spring bars are in gold when the cases are in gold, since they wear out less when gold rubs against gold than when steel rubs against gold. This also diminishes the risk of the spring bar and case working loose and causing the strap/bracelet to drop off.

SQU

Abbreviation for "Skeleton" in the Patek Philippe typology.

Skeleton

Refers to a movement that is open worked and engraved by hand.

Star wheel

Type of wheel with large triangular teeth, periodically locked by a jumper-spring. Its shape resembles that of a star.

Steel

  • The term "steel parts" encompasses all steel parts of the movement. This is always hardened steel.
  • Stainless steel: steel used for watch exteriors. It is a material that is hard to work with, particularly to set with gems.

Stem

Metal cylindrical movement part.

  • Winding stem: it ensures the winding of a mechanical manually wound movement. Operated by the crown, it successively drives the winding pinion placed at its end, then the crown wheel, and finally the escape wheel.
  • Split stem: winding stem for watches with a monobloc case. The movement is inserted into the case with a short part of the winding stem ("plug" part). The second part of the stem ("socket" part) is thus inserted through the side of the case thanks to the tube.

Stepping motor

Battery-driven motor which distributes the energy in a quartz movement. It plays the same role as the escapement in a mechanical movement.

Straight graining

With a tool like an abrasive pencil, the craftsman rubs parallel strokes along the squared-off sides of a part, leaving the metal with a velvety matt slub.

Striking mechanism

A complication which strikes or chimes (on request by operating a slide piece, or automatically). There are several types of striking mechanism. Patek Philippe produces the following types:

  • Minute repeaters: they strike the hours, quarters and minutes, exclusively on request.
  • Petites Sonneries: they automatically strike the full hours, and the quarters (without the hours) in passing the quarters. They also incorporate the minute repeater function.
  • Grandes Sonneries: they automatically strike the full hours, and also the hours and quarters when passing the quarters. They also incorporate the minute repeater function.
  • The Westminster chime housed in the Star Caliber 2000: this is the most complicated of all striking mechanisms. It faithfully reproduces the famous Westminster chime. It automatically strikes the quarters, by adding them up. At each full hour, it strikes first the four quarter-hours and then the hours.

Strap

Strip/band of leather (or other non-metal material) that holds the watch to the wrist.

Stud

Small cylinder driven or screwed in, serving as a support for a part to turn freely.

Satin brushing

A polishing technique where the surface of the metal is “drawn out” or smoothed with a tool coated in fine emery paste to achieve a matt appearance and a finely striated effect.

Sinking the holes

A concave chamfer or incurving edge – called a sink – is carved into a previously machined hole and highly polished. The chamfer not only enables easier positioning of screws, but also ensures that a jewel driven into a hole will shine with even more radiance.

Sinking the wheels

In the past when oils were less stable, the sinking of wheels kept the oil more directed toward the axis. Today, it’s a solely aesthetic job. The different wheels all receive a polished sink – a concave chamfer or slightly hollowed groove – made using a diamond cutting tool on a mechanical lathe, which is lowered onto the tiny, impeccably placed piece.

Sunburst

A dial finish obtained by brushing the surface with an abrasive paste to create rays spreading from the center to the rim.

T

Timekeeping

Measuring elapsed time by means of a chronograph.

Time zones

Simultaneous indication of the time in several time zones. The most common models are dual time zone watches which give home time and local time in the place one is traveling to. Patek Philippe also produces a model called "World Time", which simultaneously displays the time in 24 time zones.

Threading

Cutting a screw-thread on a rod or in a hole.

TO

Abbreviation for "Tourbillon", in the Patek Philippe typology.

Top Wesselton

Refers to diamonds of F (Rare white+) or G (Rare white) colour.

Tourbillon

A device invented in 1801 by A.-L. Breguet, eliminates variations in rate due to gravity, in vertical positions. The tourbillon comprises a mobile carriage carrying the escapement and balance and spring assembly components. Crafting it represents an impressive technical accomplishment. At Patek Philippe, 69 tiny parts are housed inside a space with a diameter of around 10 millimetres, and which together weigh just 0.3 gram.

Trimming

The removal of any minute burrs or tiny scraps of material left on the dial plate or bridge by machining, usually using a scraper with a narrow spear-like head.

Tropical

Refers to a bracelet in a composite material from the Aquanaut sports collection by Patek Philippe. Virtually indestructible even in a natural salt water or extremely cold environment, it is remarkably resistant to traction and to ultra-violet rays.

Turning

Fashioning with a lathe, whether hand-operated or engine-driven.

Tweezers

Fine pincers used to pick up small objects (always used in plural form).

Twenty~4

Representing a contemporary interpretation of the Gondolo ladies' model, this collection inspired by the Art Deco movement is based on a double-shafted cambered case (4824). Twenty~4® watches lovingly caress the lines of the wrist by adopting a seductively curved silhouette, extended by a broad, yet extremely thin bracelet. They are available in two sizes (medium and small), three materials (steel, white or rose gold) , in jewelled watch and Haute Joaillerie versions.

U

Unbalance

Disequilibrium of a rotating part.

V

Variation in rate

When referring to watches, means the gain or loss each day. This is particularly noticeable in a mechanical watch, and virtually nil in a quartz watch. It must fall within strict tolerance thresholds in order for the movement to be granted chronometer certification.

Vibration

In a mechanical watch, the movement of the balance and spring assembly in one direction, forwards and backwards. In a quartz watch, the simple vibration of the quartz. A vibration is equivalent to a half-oscillation.

Velvet finishing

A decoration, usually used on dials, achieved with two consecutive styles of sand-blasting, first by bombarding the metal with a mix of powdered rock and water until the surface has a fine, matt nap, then using cream of tartar as an abrasive, which imparts a cream-colored, velour look.

Vertical satin brushing

A dial decoration technique using a small brush with firm copper bristles and an abrasive paste. The brush is then drawn carefully downward.

W

Watch

Case fitted with a watch movement which shows the time and various additional indications with varying degrees of complexity. Patek Philippe produces wristwatches and pocket watches.

Westminster

See "Striking mechanism".

Wheel

Circular movement part (wheel top + pinion) that spins around an axis and transmits force or energy. At Patek Philippe, the wheels are chamfered, circular satin finished, sunk and gilded. Their teeth are polished by hand on a wooden grinding-wheel coated with abrasive paste.

Wheel plate

Movement part which, together with a pinion, forms a wheel.

Winding

Winding the spring of a mechanical watch. This winding may be done manually or automatically by wrist movements.

Winding mechanism

Part of a mechanical watch, designed for winding:

  • The winding mechanism of manually wound movements is operated by the crown. The system was developed by Jean-Adrien Philippe in 1842 to replace the key, placed on the back of watch cases.
  • The winding mechanism of self-winding watches is driven by the rotor thanks to wrist movements.

Wristwatch

Watch intended to be worn on the wrist. Patek Philippe produces mechanical and quartz wristwatches.

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